Voice of the Customer – Kano Analysis

As a Consultant, I’ve acquired specific preferences when traveling, and learned to adapt behaviors that make these experiences as stress free as possible. For example, at airport security, I try to avoid standing in line behind anyone who is dressed too “casually” or has sun screen as one of the items in their plastic bag. Chances are that they will take twice as long going through security, thus delaying my time to reach my gate/flight. When selecting a hotel, I look for one with a good in-house dining menu. The benefit of coming back to the hotel and enjoying a good meal without having to leave my room is priceless. Also, let’s be honest, it all comes down to points.

The casual traveler might see little value in earning points or priority boarding; however, the business traveler sees great value in these service items.  Not all consumers value the same services and products on the market in the same way and many companies are keen to analyze these trends. To aid in analyzing customer needs, and provide insight into services or products of little importance or that miss Critical to Quality (CTQ) features, companies may want to perform a Six Sigma process based on the Voice of Customer (VOC), called Kano Analysis.

What Does It Do?

Kano Analysis identifies and prioritizes customer needs or requirements by classifying them under key categories, including: basic services a customer expects, services that a customer desires, and services that delight a customer. Below is a summary of categories and definitions (terminology may vary slightly).

Requirement/Need Definition
  • “Must Be”
  • Basic Requirements
  • Dissatisfiers
  • (Expected Quality)
  • Expected features – cannot increase satisfaction
  • Taken for granted, rarely voiced
  • If not fulfilled, customer is extremely dissatisfied
  • “More is Better”
  • Performance Requirements
  • Satisifers
  • (One Dimensional Desired Quality)
  • Linear effect – the more needs are met, the more satisfied
  • Customer is aware that feature is important to them
  • Remain in the market
  • “Delighter”
  • Excitement Requirements
  • Satisifers
  • (Excited Quality)
  • Unexpected feature – impresses customers
  • Delights when present – does not cause dissatisfaction when not present – rarely voiced
  • Leading edge in the marketplace

How To Do It?

Gather as much VOC information as possible (via interviews, focus groups, surveys, etc.) from your customers regarding service or product offerings. Have them classify the requirements / needs under the three categories. Eliminate any requirements that aren’t relevant. The example below shows classifications pertaining to hotel services.

Requirement/Need Definition
  • “Must Be”
  • Basic Requirements
  • Dissatisfiers
  • (Expected Quality)
  • Clean hotel room
  • Reinforced lock
  • Toiletries
  • Towels
  • “More is Better”
  • Performance Requirements
  • Satisifers
  • (One Dimensional Desired Quality)
  • Large work desk
  • Wi-Fi
  • Car service
  • Hair dryer
  • Bed-side outlet
  • On-Demand movies
  • “Delighter”
  • Excitement Requirements
  • Satisifers
  • (Excited Quality)
  • Dimmable lights
  • Heated floors
  • Bottle of wine on birthday
  • Cappuccino machine in room
  • Room access activated via smart phone

It’s important to point out that a customer’s needs / requirements change over time. What was once a “Delighter” could be a “Dissatisfier” nowadays. For example, receiving an invoice (slipped under the hotel room door) used to mean that it wasn’t necessary to wait in line to check out of the hotel. Nowadays, it’s just one more piece of paper to file. Many travelers prefer to automatically receive an electronic copy of the invoice.

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